Teen drug courts aren’t an option for many in WV


That is half 2 of a 2-part collection on juvenile justice in West Virginia. Read part 1 here.

The primary time Gabby Bradshaw tried alcohol, she was 10 years previous. She began smoking weed shortly after, a behavior she continued by way of center college. 

When she bought to highschool, issues bought uncontrolled. She skipped class nearly day-after-day, holing up on the homes of her older associates and smoking pot, cigarettes and crack cocaine. 

“I used to be very hard-headed. I didn’t need to take heed to anyone,” she stated.

When she was 15, she was charged with shoplifting and truancy, and was ultimately identified with a substance abuse dysfunction. Authorities gave her an choice: keep in a residential facility or take part in a newly-established juvenile drug court docket in her hometown of Parkersburg. 

Bradshaw selected the latter, and says the remedy court docket modified her life.

“I don’t suppose that I ever would have graduated highschool with out this system,” she stated. “I wanted that further construction in my life.” 

Gabby Bradshaw. Photograph courtesy Gabby Bradshaw.

Youngsters in West Virginia are charged with juvenile offenses and despatched to out-of-home placement amenities — which embrace residential houses, correctional amenities and remedy facilities — at a better fee than nearly every other state within the nation. In 2019, the final 12 months nationwide knowledge was out there, the state was second solely to Alaska. 

And in a state the place many battle with drug habit and overdose demise charges are rising, teenagers battle with substance abuse too. Fortunate ones like Bradshaw dwell in locations like Wooden County, the place juvenile drug courts give them the chance to obtain help and remedy. This strategy helps preserve youngsters of their communities, and reduces the probability they may commit extra offenses. It additionally saves the state cash.

However practically a 3rd of West Virginia youngsters don’t dwell in a county with entry to such a program. This implies for about 110,000 youngsters, their house deal with may lead them down a drastically totally different — and troubling — path within the juvenile justice system.

Retaining youngsters at house

One of many key advantages of juvenile drug courts is that they supply a substitute for eradicating youngsters from their houses and putting them in a residential facility. Teen remedy courts have grow to be more and more fashionable within the state, as lawmakers and judges alike have sought to reform the juvenile justice system and preserve extra youngsters of their communities. 

The reforms helped deal with a component of the juvenile justice system that’s typically missed based on Teresa McCune, senior counsel and former chief public defender in Mingo County’s Circuit Court docket. 

“I simply want that we noticed youngsters as youngsters. They’re nonetheless growing, they usually can’t suppose the way in which we do but,” McCune stated. “They develop they usually change.” 

Within the final fifteen years, the U.S. Supreme Court docket has repeatedly acknowledged that youngsters needs to be held to totally different authorized requirements than adults as a result of their brains operate in another way: The prefrontal cortex, the a part of the mind that evaluates dangers and long-term penalties, controls impulses, and regulates decision-making, will not be absolutely developed in most individuals till they’re 25.

And court docket sentences for teenagers have lasting implications, partially as a result of youngsters are nonetheless growing. Studies show that juvenile incarceration could make youngsters much less prone to graduate highschool, make them extra prone to be incarcerated as an grownup, completely disrupt their social and group ties, and maintain them again from future monetary success, in comparison with their friends.

That’s the place diversion applications like juvenile drug courts come into play. In West Virginia and nationwide, these applications have confirmed efficient at each decreasing the variety of youngsters confined in juvenile correctional amenities and decreasing the probability of them committing subsequent offenses. 

About 15% of juvenile drug court docket graduates went on to commit one other offense. That’s in contrast with 55% of youths in additional conventional probation applications, based on the state Supreme Court docket.

And juvenile drug courts save the state some huge cash, too. On common, confining a child at a residential placement facility prices round $100,000 a 12 months. The typical price of teenybopper remedy court docket in 2020 was $3,522 per participant, a sum that features intensive supervision and individualized remedy providers for each {the teenager} and their household, based on Nick Leftwich, who oversees all juvenile and grownup drug courts for the state Supreme Court docket.

The remedy courts mix intensive court docket supervision — youngsters meet with their probation officer as much as 3 times every week — with particular person and group remedy periods and substance abuse remedy.

In comparison with regular courtroom proceedings, juvenile drug courts are extra “participant-centric,” Leftwich stated. “The main focus is on contributors’ progress, with the final word purpose of getting people clear and sober, sustaining their restoration, and finally graduating them from this system.”

David Hill, the juvenile drug court docket probation officer in Putnam County, believes that remedy courts ought to grow to be the “new regular” within the juvenile justice system. Typical court docket proceedings that strictly comply with the code of legislation don’t permit for a lot flexibility or help, Hill stated. However these traits are what makes teen remedy courts profitable. 

“You’ve got to have the ability to bend a bit, in any other case you might be simply incarcerating people who find themselves sick,” he stated.

Unequal entry

Round 6 p.m. on a latest weekday, a bunch of youngsters and their households filed right into a courtroom in Putnam County’s judicial constructing. The youngsters, dressed within the typical teenage uniform of hoodies, denims and basketball shorts, organized themselves within the jury field, chatting amongst themselves. Their households sat silently within the gallery, ready for the week’s juvenile drug court docket proceedings to start. 

One after the other, the youngsters, flanked by a guardian, approached the bench. In entrance of the contributors and their households, Circuit Choose Phillip Stowers celebrated triumphs and admonished setbacks with equal elements optimistic reinforcement, humor and hard love. 

“The previous can damage,” Stowers stated, holding up a figurine of Rafiki, the eccentric mandrill shaman from “The Lion King.” 

“However the way in which I see it you may both run from it or study from it.”

This mindset underscores the aim of remedy courts for juveniles and adults alike. Each week, a remedy workforce made up of court docket officers, therapists, state caseworkers, educators, and group volunteers evaluations the youngsters’ circumstances. The teenagers have a bunch remedy session, after which attend a court docket session the place the decide addresses their particular person progress. This system has a number of phases with totally different ranges of supervision and takes no less than seven months to finish.

And whereas he holds the kids accountable for his or her progress and previous actions, Stowers doesn’t count on change in a single day. “I ask you to do higher, to not be excellent,” he informed the youngsters.  

The judicial constructing in Putnam County. Photograph by Anya Slepyan.

There are at the moment seven youngsters enrolled in Putnam County’s juvenile drug court docket and one other 102 in different drug courts across the state. If it weren’t for the remedy courts, nearly all of these youngsters would have been despatched to residential placement amenities, based on Larry Johnson, the chief juvenile probation officer in Wooden County. 

However for youngsters in 31 of West Virginia’s 55 counties, juvenile drug courts aren’t an choice. In 2019, about 110,000 youngsters (30% of the state’s under-18 inhabitants) lived in a county with out certainly one of these applications.

The result’s that children dealing with comparable costs might be set on wildly totally different paths throughout the juvenile justice system, relying on the providers offered of their communities. Though the state has tried to make applications like drug courts extra out there, it hasn’t succeeded in closing the service hole between counties.

That isn’t for lack of making an attempt, says Leftwich. Juvenile drug courts are a partnership between circuit courts and the state Supreme Court docket. The Supreme Court docket absolutely funds the applications, whereas the circuit courts implement them — hiring and managing the probation officers who supervise the youngsters, placing collectively the remedy workforce, and coordinating providers.

To start out a brand new juvenile drug court docket, circuit judges should submit an software to the Supreme Court docket, which Leftwich says emphatically helps the applications. 

“We’re prepared when they’re,” he stated. 

However regardless of monetary help on the state degree, regional circuit courts nonetheless face vital obstacles to implementing juvenile drug courts. One subject is that judges are anticipated to preside over remedy courts along with their regular docket of circumstances, that are particularly full proper now as a consequence of court docket closures throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Additionally,  juvenile drug courts depend on group assets past the court docket system. Native drug remedy suppliers and therapists have to be out there and keen to be a part of a remedy workforce that meets every week to debate the circumstances. 

“Getting all these people to return to the desk weekly to debate remedy is a large element of the juvenile drug courts,” Leftwich stated. “So if you happen to don’t have a very good remedy supplier, or one that’s out there to fulfill the rigorous calls for of drug court docket, it’s troublesome to achieve success.” 

Youth reporting facilities — which offer supervision and providers like remedy and drug screenings  — are one other various to juvenile confinement and might help the mission of remedy courts. 

However once more, these aren’t out there in each county. And regardless of a mandate within the state’s 2015 juvenile justice reform legislation that the Bureau of Juvenile Providers function a minimal of 19 youth reporting facilities by July 2018, there are nonetheless solely 17 in West Virginia. 

Youth reporting facilities and juvenile drug courts are intently linked, and there’s loads of overlap within the counties which have each choices. However youngsters in 26 West Virginia counties don’t have entry to both program.

Compounding disparities

This demonstrates a snowball impact referring to youth providers. The extra assets a county has — whether or not therapists, habit remedy providers, or youth reporting facilities — the simpler it’s for that county to create extra providers, similar to juvenile drug courts, that redirect youngsters from residential placement to community-based applications. 

However the issue is compounded for counties already missing in assets. 

Take Mingo County. Regardless of being one of many epicenters of the opioid epidemic (in addition to media protection of the disaster), the county doesn’t have a teen remedy court docket.

Mingo has just one circuit decide, who must apply for, arrange, after which preside over the model new juvenile drug court docket along with her already-crowded docket. 

And even when they established a teen drug court docket, the county lacks the opposite supporting providers they want. There’s no youth reporting heart, and the remedy providers for youngsters are restricted, based on McCune, who has served as a public defender and labored with youngsters within the county for greater than three a long time. 

In recent times, a number of of McCune’s juvenile purchasers have been ordered by the court docket to finish drug counseling, however they’ve needed to wait months to get appointments. Different occasions, a baby’s psychiatric analysis will present that they’re in want of intensive counseling, however the native providers are solely in a position to present one appointment a month. 

“I don’t know if a psychological well being skilled would think about that ‘intensive counseling,’ but it surely certain doesn’t sound intensive to me,” McCune stated. 

The 14th judicial circuit, made up of Braxton, Clay, Gilmer and Webster counties, is in an analogous place. There isn’t any youth reporting heart throughout the circuit, and no juvenile drug court docket both. Lucy Cruickshanks, the chief probation officer for Clay County, needs that they had a teen remedy court docket.

“If we have been in a position to, it will be the very best factor,” she stated. However the actuality of the scenario is totally different. 

“Clay County is a really rural county, and we don’t have loads of assets,” she stated. “We’re quick on workers, quick on cash, it’s a mixture of loads of issues.” 

This lack of assets for juveniles leaves everybody feeling annoyed and doesn’t give judges many alternate options to maintain struggling youngsters of their communities as an alternative of putting them in residential amenities.

“I understand how a lot youngsters’ welfare means to those judges,” stated Stephanie Bond, the director of Probation Providers on the state Supreme Court docket. “They solely need to do what’s greatest for these youngsters, however typically they really feel like they don’t have an alternative choice [than removing kids from their homes], as a result of there aren’t every other providers out there.” 

Stowers, the Putnam County decide, agrees. 

“When you’re a decide in a county with out a youth reporting heart or an efficient Secure at Dwelling [program], then you definitely don’t have any selections for a kid,” he stated, referring to in-home providers offered by the state Division of Well being and Human Assets. “And I wish to see the state equalize the enjoying area in each circuit so that every one judges have the alternatives that some judges have, as a result of not all of them have that chance.” 

However for those who do, entry to drug courts will help teenagers flip over a brand new web page.

Eight years after she graduated from Wooden County’s juvenile drug court docket program, Gabby Bradshaw is now serving to others cope with substance abuse. She’s a part of the speedy response workforce at Westbrook Well being Providers in Parkersburg, which follows up with individuals who have suffered drug overdoses and tries to get them into remedy. She can be part of the remedy workforce for the circuit court docket’s juvenile drug court docket, serving to teenagers undergo the identical course of that helped her.

Though she relapsed and needed to restart her restoration as an grownup, with out juvenile drug court docket, Bradshaw says she “would have been both in jail or lifeless.”  

However with the ability to assist different individuals by way of their restoration makes all of it value it, she stated. “It’s a tremendous feeling once you see [the program] simply click on for individuals. You see a light-weight shining of their eyes that wasn’t there earlier than.” 


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