Dying on the Waitlist | HealthLeaders Media


In Los Angeles County and across the nation, medical doctors have needed to resolve who will get a lifesaving COVID-19 therapy and who would not.

This text was revealed on Thursday, February 18, 2021 in ProPublica.

By David Armstrong and Marshall Allen

In early December, Miguel Fernandez lay unconscious within the intensive care unit at a Los Angeles space hospital. A mechanical ventilator pumped oxygen into his lungs, which had been ravaged by COVID-19. The 53-year-old was dying.

The very best, and certain solely, likelihood of Miguel surviving was a remedy referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, higher often called ECMO. It could permit his lungs to relaxation whereas a machine infused his blood with the oxygen he wanted. However PIH Well being Whittier Hospital, the place he had been admitted, did not have any ECMO machines or the extremely educated workers wanted to run them. Solely a handful of hospitals in southern California did, and so they had been overrun with COVID-19 instances.

For the reason that starting of the pandemic, public well being consultants had been warning about the necessity to “bend the curve” — to forestall the variety of COVID-19 instances from spiking so hospitals would not get overwhelmed.

However beginning in early November, the every day variety of COVID-19 hospitalizations surged in Los Angeles County, rising eightfold between then and the wave’s crest, which arrived simply after New Yr’s Day. Inside weeks, overflowing hospitals confronted precisely the varieties of care-rationing selections consultants had feared. Hospitals arrange tents to extend capability, and ambulances circled for hours as they waited for beds to open. By early January, Los Angeles County emergency medical personnel were directed to preserve supplemental oxygen by solely administering it to the neediest sufferers, and to stop transporting to hospitals cardiac arrest sufferers who could not be revived within the subject. State officers dispatched refrigerated vehicles and thousands of body bags to the area.

Contained in the hospitals, for sufferers like Miguel, a dire state of affairs unfolded out of public view. Critically in poor health sufferers who may survive with ECMO couldn’t get the therapy. Medical doctors had to decide on who obtained the remedy based mostly on who they thought had one of the best likelihood to outlive. Some had been authorised, however needed to be placed on a waitlist. Many sufferers died ready.

“I do not suppose we ever thought we might get thus far, not in California,” mentioned Dr. Jack Solar, who oversees this system that features ECMO at UCI Well being in Orange County, 30 miles southeast of Los Angeles. ” if you do not have a mattress for anyone, they’re going to die.”

In some elements of the nation, medical doctors can faucet into centralized programs to rapidly discover any out there mattress for ECMO at any hospital within the area. That is not the case in Los Angeles. Miguel’s caregivers and household must hack by pink tape and navigate an opaque, disconnected and generally unfair system to attempt to save his life.

Miguel, the oldest of seven siblings in a household of Mexican immigrants, was all the time the one who mounted issues. If somebody wanted a job, he would assist them discover work. If a automobile broke down, he would restore it. His sister, Margarita Rodriguez, described him as a “massive cuddly bear” who gave her hugs and all the time made her smile. Simply earlier than he was hospitalized, he had stopped by to patch a leak in her roof.

Now the household needed to discover a approach to repair Miguel.

They scoured the web with searches like “What do you do when a ventilator fails?” One evening, Margarita discovered a hit story from San Diego about using ECMO. An ECMO machine takes over the work of a affected person’s lungs. It extracts blood from the physique and circulates it by a man-made lung that removes carbon dioxide and provides oxygen earlier than returning the blood to the physique. One study of sufferers at 68 U.S. hospitals discovered that critically in poor health COVID-19 sufferers like Miguel “had a significantly decrease danger of demise” in the event that they obtained ECMO throughout their first seven days in an ICU.

Miguel was comparatively wholesome apart from having COVID-19. He did not smoke or have any preexisting sicknesses like diabetes. He was chubby, however beneath weight cutoffs utilized by ECMO facilities to find out eligibility. Throughout the nation, sufferers like Miguel who had been close to demise on a ventilator sooner or later had been alive and leaving a hospital weeks later after present process ECMO.

Miguel’s oldest son, Miguel Jr., knew from his conversations with medical doctors that his dad wasn’t going to get higher by staying on the ventilator. “ECMO was his final hope, his greatest likelihood to outlive,” Miguel Jr. mentioned. “It was ECMO or demise.”

A Determined Search

Miguel and his household had tried to guard themselves from the virus. Three of his 4 grownup youngsters dwell in his house, and after they obtained contaminated within the fall, the household remoted as a lot as attainable. Miguel stayed distanced on some nights by sleeping in an previous RV he had within the yard.

The pandemic had pressured the prolonged Fernandez clan to chop again on household gatherings. Earlier than COVID-19, Miguel had usually organized get-togethers at his house on the southeastern aspect of Los Angeles, for birthdays or graduations, or to observe soccer or grill. After his solely daughter, Jeannette, was accepted by UCLA final yr, he proudly walked round her send-off bash in a “UCLA Dad” T-shirt.

However Miguel needed to maintain working. He and two of his brothers owned a development enterprise that purchased and renovated houses. They’d flipped lots of of properties, beginning 12 years in the past with an $80,000 fixer-upper in Compton and extra just lately a $2.5 million undertaking in Pasadena. Two of Miguel’s three sons labored with him. Even after COVID-19 struck his household, Miguel nonetheless needed to choose up provides and go to job websites.

In early November, Miguel began to really feel sick and went to a coronavirus testing website at a neighborhood recreation heart. Two days later he obtained an electronic mail telling him what he already suspected: He had COVID-19. By Nov. 15, he had a fever and evening sweats and was having bother respiration.

Though he was getting sicker, Miguel did not wish to go to the hospital. He knew folks like him had been dying. Latino Angelenos have suffered the very best COVID-19 demise price in Los Angeles County — virtually twice the speed of Blacks and about 3 times the speed for whites.

However by Nov. 17, Miguel struggled to breathe as he walked from the lavatory to the sofa. The household had bought an oximeter, a tool that measures oxygen ranges within the blood when clipped onto a finger. His oxygen degree had dropped to 77%, dangerously beneath the 95% thought of on the low vary of what is regular.

“We realized this was an actual emergency,” mentioned Jeannette, his 21-year-old daughter. Simply earlier than midnight, two of Miguel’s sons helped him into the passenger seat of the household’s Ford Explorer. Jeannette took the wheel and Miguel’s spouse, Alejandrina, obtained within the again seat.

Jeannette headed to PIH Well being Whittier Hospital, a 523-bed facility close to their house. Outdoors the emergency room, the workers helped the 275-pound Miguel right into a wheelchair and put an oxygen monitor on his finger. It sounded an alarm. His spouse and daughter may see worry in his eyes; he did not say a phrase as he was rushed into the hospital. Jeannette and Alejandrina did not even get to say goodbye.

PIH Well being declined to make caregivers out there for interviews or reply questions on Miguel’s care. “PIH Well being won’t be able to supply a press release for this story,” a hospital spokesperson mentioned in an electronic mail.

Hospital information present that Miguel was given high-flow oxygen by a face masks and put in a mattress that allowed hospital workers to flip him on his stomach, boosting his oxygen degree to 93%. He was handled with steroids and an antiviral drug. Two days after admission, issues had been wanting up.

Jeannette started offering updates by a bunch textual content message labeled “Familia.” It included Miguel’s brothers, many cousins, nieces and nephews, mother and father and his 4 youngsters. Miguel was “doing good,” she reported. Miguel spent his days studying messages on his telephone, even when mendacity on his abdomen. He despatched his household pictures of his meals, and made particular requests of the hospital workers, asking for buttered sourdough toast and prune juice with breakfast.

The household hoped Miguel can be house for Thanksgiving. However the course of COVID-19 is unpredictable.

At 11 p.m. on Nov. 22, Miguel texted his household, letting them know he anticipated to have an extended evening. He wrote in a textual content: “if I wish to make it to thanksgiving have keep awake and restore my oxygen ranges.”

When Thanksgiving arrived 4 days later, a scan of Miguel’s lungs revealed irritation and scar tissue. Medical doctors began him on a 10-day course of anti-inflammation remedy. “Be out by Christmas,” Miguel texted.

The household responded with encouragement. “Dangle in there we’re all with you,” wrote his sister Margarita. “Ten days go by actually quick.”

However eight days later, on Dec. 4, Miguel’s oxygen ranges plummeted. The medical doctors put him on a ventilator.

Miguel was now combating for his life.

Unable to go to him, the household prayed for his restoration. Each evening Miguel was within the hospital, his prolonged household gathered on Zoom at 7:30 p.m. Miguel’s 71-year-old mom, Martha, and 73-year-old father, Salvador, would lead an hour-long prayer session whereas clutching rosary beads.

The separation was particularly troublesome for Alejandrina, who had been married to Miguel since 1991. Miguel favored to tease her when she watched her Mexican telenovelas: Why do you watch these reveals when you might have me? On Mom’s Day earlier within the yr, Miguel had shocked her by shopping for a pair of rings, getting down on one knee and proposing once more. The couple made plans to resume their vows on their thirtieth wedding ceremony anniversary this summer time. When he turned sick with COVID-19, Miguel assured Alejandrina he would get higher so they may get married once more. She promised she would watch for him.

After Miguel was intubated, his household gathered within the parking zone exterior the constructing the place ICU sufferers are handled, to be as near him as attainable. Miguel’s mom knelt on the pavement for 40 minutes, her fingers clasped in prayer. She instructed her grandchildren that praying wanted to be sacrificial. It needed to harm to be efficient.

It was arduous for Miguel’s household to achieve the medical doctors to debate therapy choices, partly as a result of members of the family could not go to. It was unattainable to construct a relationship on the bedside or buttonhole medical doctors on their rounds, the way in which they may have in non-pandemic occasions. They referred to as a number of occasions a day, nevertheless it was troublesome to get clear data.

When a health care provider did name with an replace, Miguel’s daughter Jeannette would patch in her brother, Miguel Jr., and Miguel’s niece, Jhaimy Fernandez, a fourth-year medical pupil on the College of Vermont’s Larner School of Medication.

Miguel’s members of the family mentioned they had been those to carry up ECMO, shortly after he was intubated. The ICU physician treating Miguel instructed them ECMO was not an choice, they recalled. Jhaimy requested a session with the palliative care group, which makes a speciality of serving to critically in poor health sufferers and their households make therapy selections. The palliative care group, nevertheless, agreed with the ICU physician, she mentioned.

“They simply thought it was outrageous for us to even take into consideration ECMO,” Jhaimy mentioned of the hospital’s medical doctors.

Miguel Jr. mentioned it appeared as if the medical doctors weren’t conversant in his father’s medical historical past. They requested if he had diabetes, Miguel Jr. mentioned, which he did not. He did not have any preexisting situations that sometimes make sufferers unsuitable for ECMO. Though some ECMO facilities use age cutoffs, Miguel, at 53, was younger sufficient to be thought of acceptable for the remedy.

Carlos Fernandez, Miguel’s youthful brother and enterprise associate, mentioned it was irritating that the household needed to carry the ECMO choice to the caregiving group.

“They simply sort of wrote him off,” he mentioned, including that it is attainable the therapy group was simply overwhelmed. “He is an older, Latino, chubby man. That’s the demographic the coronavirus is on the lookout for.”

In a dialogue with Miguel’s daughter within the early afternoon of Dec. 7, a health care provider referred to as his prognosis “very poor,” in line with notes in his hospital report.

That replace, nevertheless, was adopted by extra hopeful information. The household’s insistence had paid off. His medical doctors had now determined he was, in reality, a candidate for ECMO. The household would not know what modified their minds, and the medical information don’t describe how the medical doctors arrived at that call. The medical group instructed the household Miguel can be transferred quickly to a website the place he may obtain the brand new therapy.

A Tangled System

That afternoon, a hospital affected person case supervisor started the hassle to search out Miguel an ECMO mattress.

There isn’t a central database that hospital workers can faucet into to rapidly work out the place within the larger Los Angeles space an empty ECMO mattress may exist. Case managers sometimes should name hospitals one after the other, navigating every facility’s specific forms and coordinating all of it with Miguel’s insurer.

“It’s a nonsensical, haphazard assortment of stakeholders, and the pandemic has discovered the fault traces in it,” mentioned Dr. Douglas White, a doctor who directs this system on ethics and choice making in crucial sickness on the College of Pittsburgh College of Medication.

A key motive ECMO is being rationed within the U.S. is an absence of regional coorination, White mentioned. “If one hospital has no ECMO [units], however one other 50 miles away has one, there must be a system in place to attach them,” he mentioned. “That is the way you stop the necessity to ration.”

In Arizona, the state well being division created the Arizona Surge Line early within the pandemic to coordinate care statewide for critically in poor health sufferers, mentioned White. Greater than 4,000 sufferers, together with many from hard-hit Native American reservations, have been transferred by this clearinghouse, in line with White. The system is concentrated on capability for all critically in poor health sufferers, so it is broader than simply ECMO therapy. However it’s an instance of easy methods to join sufferers to the assets they want in actual time, he mentioned.

In Washington and Oregon, ECMO program administrators can log in to a doc that shows the supply of ECMO beds all through the area.

In 2016, the administrators of Minnesota’s six ECMO facilities created a consortium to assist with pandemic and emergency operations, mentioned Dr. Matthew Prekker, a pulmonologist and significant care specialist at Hennepin County Medical Heart in Minneapolis. The consortium established uniform eligibility pointers to ensure all critically sick sufferers get a good likelihood on the remedy.

If half the state’s medical facilities attain capability, it triggers an emergency convention name between the ECMO heart administrators, who steer sufferers to open beds. “We’re properly organized,” mentioned Prekker. “We do not work in silos.”

Los Angeles has huge educational medical facilities, however no real-time coordination on discovering ECMO beds. Earlier than COVID-19 there had not been a have to coordinate such a excessive quantity of sufferers, mentioned Dr. Peyman Benharash, director of the grownup ECMO program at UCLA Well being. He mentioned when COVID-19 hit, ECMO medical doctors created an off-the-cuff group chat so they may coordinate sufferers and assets, nevertheless it’s not one thing case managers can entry. Benharash mentioned his heart doesn’t use a ready checklist, as a result of he desires case managers to proceed looking for any hospitals which may have a mattress out there. If UCLA is full, it tells case managers to name again in 12 hours.

The shortage of a centralized system in Los Angeles may end up in a scramble for case managers and medical doctors as sufferers’ lives hold within the stability.

On the afternoon of Dec. 7, Miguel’s medical information present, the PIH Whittier case supervisor referred to as Miguel’s insurance coverage firm. There was no assure the insurer would comply with a remedy that may simply run into the six figures. Insurance coverage firm rejections of ECMO usually are not unusual, in line with ECMO administrators. However in Miguel’s case that did not appear to be an impediment. The insurer instructed PIH that the College of Southern California’s Keck Hospital, the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Heart and Cedars-Sinai Medical Heart may be choices. The case supervisor left a message at USC and offered UCLA with Miguel’s data. Cedars-Sinai got here again with a no, saying Miguel did not meet its standards for ECMO remedy.

The case supervisor, after speaking to Miguel’s insurer, tried two extra hospitals. One, UCI Well being in Orange County, did not have any ECMO beds out there. A second, Windfall Saint John’s Well being Heart in Santa Monica, mentioned it might overview Miguel’s information.

In the course of the COVID-19 surge, ECMO facilities had been screening the rising variety of sufferers to prioritize these with one of the best possibilities of survival. At 5:08 p.m., after three hours of working the telephones, the case supervisor turned over the search to a colleague. Quickly after, UCLA referred to as to say it would not take Miguel as a result of he had a hematoma and blood clotting.

A Prayer Answered

Because the case managers looked for an ECMO mattress, Miguel’s mom was again within the hospital parking zone holding a vigil for her son. This time, she hid a prayer card and string of rosary beads beneath the inexperienced leaves of a day lily to guard Miguel when she was not there.

The seek for an ECMO mattress didn’t make progress for many of the day on Dec. 8. The longer Miguel trusted a ventilator, the larger the prospect he would both die or undergo problems that would disqualify him for ECMO. Even with out problems, prolonged ventilator time may rule out ECMO. By now, he had been intubated for 4 days. Some packages won’t take a affected person who has been intubated greater than per week.

“Relating to anyone needing ECMO, they’ll fail in a short time,” mentioned Solar.

The subsequent day, on Dec. 8, the palliative care group provided a grim prognosis in a phone name with Miguel’s household: “We instructed them that Mr. Fernandez was not more likely to recuperate at this level,” in line with hospital information. The household mentioned it nonetheless needed the hospital to make each effort to avoid wasting Miguel if his coronary heart stopped.

All through the day on Dec. 8, a staffer on the Saint John’s switch heart was making an attempt to achieve somebody at PIH to debate Miguel’s case. At 8:33 that night, a case employee at PIH wrote that she had obtained a name from Saint John’s. The switch contact mentioned he had “been making an attempt to get involved with [case manager] all day and left VMs however nobody referred to as again.”

The subsequent day, a PIH case employee famous within the information that she had missed messages from Saint John’s as a result of it was her day without work.

Saint John’s had been calling PIH with excellent news: The hospital had accepted Miguel for its ECMO program and would admit him as quickly as a mattress turned out there. Over the subsequent few hours, paperwork was faxed backwards and forwards between the hospitals, and the insurance coverage firm was contacted for approval.

“Nice information!!!” Jeannette introduced in a message to the household group chat, including a coronary heart emoji. “My dad obtained accepted to St. John’s hospital in Santa Monica!!”

The plan, she knowledgeable the group, was for Miguel to be moved later that day.

A Life-Saving Remedy

At Saint John’s, Dr. Terese Hammond was receiving as much as three requests a day to make use of ECMO to deal with sufferers like Miguel. Hammond had been instrumental in beginning the hospital’s ECMO program after she was recruited in 2018 to supervise crucial care. She had labored with the remedy at USC, the place she headed up the pulmonary crucial care fellowship.

Group hospitals like Saint John’s do not sometimes have the price range or specialised workers for an ECMO program. Even in america — which spends about twice as a lot per individual on healthcare as different developed nations — greater than 90% of hospitals don’t supply ECMO. In Los Angeles, the established packages are positioned at massive educational medical facilities like USC, UCLA and Cedars-Sinai.

At Saint John’s, personal donors got here up with the cash to purchase a dozen ECMO models, which might price as much as $85,000 every, Hammond mentioned. The hospital can take care of as many as eight ECMO sufferers without delay, relying on staffing.

Hammond was an early believer in utilizing ECMO to assist COVID-19 sufferers whose lungs had been failing. Almost each one of many COVID-19 sufferers handled with ECMO at Saint John’s transferred in, some from greater than an hour away.

“We’ve got to validate there may be profit, and now we have been in a position to try this,” she mentioned. “I’ve folks alive at present due to ECMO.”

Miguel’s household did not should look arduous for these success tales. Los Angeles Police Division detective Michael Chang was an early ECMO affected person at Saint John’s whose near-death expertise was featured in local news reports.

Chang had been assigned to theft and gang investigations however was shifted early within the pandemic to working in uniform at COVID-19 testing websites, meals giveaways and supermarkets. On March 30, he was admitted to a small Orange County hospital close to his house with COVID-19. Six days later, he was intubated and positioned on a ventilator.

As quickly as Chang was intubated, his spouse, Dana Chang, tapped right into a community of police contacts searching for extra superior care. A captain put her in contact with an LAPD reservist who can be a surgeon, she mentioned. That physician instructed her about Saint John’s and its ECMO program. He referred to as Hammond, and a switch was organized.

“He was going downhill quick,” Dana mentioned of her husband. “If I left him there, he would have died.”

Chang arrived by ambulance at Saint John’s on April 7 and was instantly hooked as much as an ECMO machine. On the night of April 12, he was faraway from the machine. He left the hospital 5 days later.

Michael Chang generally nonetheless experiences shortness of breath and bouts of a dry cough, however he credit ECMO with saving his life. “Previous to me getting it, I had by no means heard of ECMO,” he mentioned. “I had no thought what this factor is. The world must learn about this.”

Of the 39 COVID-19 sufferers positioned on ECMO at Saint John’s because the begin of the pandemic, 15 are alive at present. Hammond mentioned most of them virtually actually would have died with out ECMO.

Hammond is the primary to warning that ECMO shouldn’t be a miracle remedy. About half the COVID-19 sufferers present process ECMO die within the hospital, in line with a registry of greater than 3,400 COVID-19 sufferers worldwide, although some facilities have reported survival charges of as excessive as two-thirds.

Miguel’s household mentioned they knew ECMO wasn’t a assure, simply an opportunity, one thing the medical doctors at PIH had been telling them he did not have there. If it did not work, they mentioned, they’d take consolation in understanding the whole lot attainable had been accomplished to assist him.

The Ready Record

The information of Miguel’s pending switch to Saint John’s rapidly gave approach to a bigger actuality: There have been a lot of sufferers like Miguel in Los Angeles.

COVID-19 was surging. The variety of COVID-19 sufferers in intensive care models had doubled within the three weeks since Miguel was hospitalized. At PIH Whittier, two weeks earlier than he was admitted, 17 sufferers had COVID-19. The week Miguel arrived, that quantity swelled to 47. By the point he was intubated, there have been 76. By Dec. 7, when the ECMO search started, there have been 93.

At Saint John’s, the ICU was full and unable to absorb any new sufferers. Whereas Hammond had authorised the switch of Miguel and had an ECMO machine to deal with him, there have been no beds out there.

The ready checklist was not one thing the household may see or monitor. There was no approach to know who was forward of Miguel, or why, or how briskly folks had been shifting up the checklist. At the least on the deli counter or DMV, they may see numbers on a board, monitor their progress and ensure nobody jumped the road. With Miguel’s life within the stability, his household was utterly at nighttime.

“My dad did not have anyone that may name to make him a precedence,” mentioned Miguel Jr. “There was no means for us to carry anybody accountable for what they had been saying. We simply needed to take them at their phrase.”

Hammond mentioned the ready checklist shouldn’t be influenced by a affected person’s wealth or social standing, solely whether or not they’re medically certified and “more likely to survive this remedy.” Within the case of Miguel, she had authorised him for ECMO when different hospitals mentioned both that they had no room or he did not meet their standards.

On Dec. 10, Miguel Jr. shared the dangerous information on the household chat that his father’s switch had not taken place the evening earlier than as hoped. “We’ve got been calling my dads switch case supervisor on the hospital and we even referred to as saint johns and spoke to considered one of their case managers to attempt to velocity up the switch course of however there may be not a lot we will do however watch for a mattress to open,” he texted to the Familia group.

The subsequent two days introduced extra ready. “Name to Windfall St Johns to comply with up on ECMO spoke w/ Rachel, nonetheless no mattress. no motion but, similar standing,” Miguel’s caseworker at PIH wrote in her notes for Dec. 11.

By now Miguel had not been respiration on his personal for per week and was changing into “increasingly troublesome to ventilate,” in line with hospital information.

The household did not perceive what it meant when hospitals mentioned that they had “no beds” of their intensive care models. Jeannette and Miguel Jr. referred to as Saint John’s to ask if they may purchase a mattress for his or her father. They did analysis to search out out if donations had been allowed to fund further beds on the hospital, however had been instructed it would not work that means.

Jeannette imagined methods to get contained in the hospital and see along with her personal eyes that all of its 266 beds was occupied. She regarded into changing into a volunteer at Saint John’s and located an utility on-line.

Hammond mentioned the phrase “not having a mattress” was a euphemism for missing sufficient nurses, respiratory therapists, perfusionists and medical doctors to take care of sufferers who want intensive care. Saint John’s expanded its ICU capability from the conventional 23 beds to 40, however including past that meant stretching the workers too far.

On the morning of Dec. 12, practically 5 days after the seek for an ECMO mattress started, the case supervisor instructed Miguel’s household that he was in “the highest 3” of these ready for an ICU mattress at Saint John’s, in line with the medical information. 12, saying that Miguel was third on a listing of individuals ready for an ICU mattress at Windfall Saint John’s Well being Heart in Santa Monica. Credit score: Courtesy of the Fernandez household

Lower than an hour later, a group of medical doctors and nurses hurried to Miguel’s room at PIH. The hospital had referred to as a Code Blue. Miguel’s coronary heart had stopped. The group began chest compressions and administered medicine to restart his coronary heart. It labored, however Miguel had suffered harm to his kidneys and different organs.

The subsequent day round midday, somebody from the Saint John’s switch heart referred to as a nurse at PIH Whittier to say that when once more no beds had been out there. The PIH case supervisor instructed Saint John’s that Miguel was in multi-organ failure, and may not survive the ambulance trip to the opposite hospital. Two hours later, Saint John’s knowledgeable PIH it might now not take Miguel as a affected person “on account of change in situation.”

At 5:23 p.m., one other Code Blue alert was sounded. This time, Miguel didn’t survive. In his room, a hospital employee gathered objects left behind after his 26-day keep: an Apple laptop computer, an iPhone and a pair of cracked black-rimmed glasses.

“Individuals Are Dying Ready”

Miguel’s spouse, Alejandrina, at his funeral on Dec. 30, 2020. Credit score: James Carbone for ProPublica

The story of Miguel’s demise and his household’s scramble to get him doubtlessly life-saving care has change into a well-known one for Hammond.

She mentioned she has had as many as seven folks on her ready checklist at one time, all in equally determined conditions.

“A part of the PTSD I’ve, the nightmares I’ve, are as a lot having to say no and having folks die on a ready checklist,” she mentioned. “These are all issues that characterize plenty of ethical damage for physicians. We all know the constraints the surge positioned on our potential to do one of the best we will. Individuals are dying ready.”

The rationing shouldn’t be restricted to Los Angeles. It’s enjoying out throughout the nation.

In Dallas, the ECMO unit at Baylor College Medical Heart receives every day requests from throughout Texas and neighboring states on behalf of desperately sick COVID-19 sufferers. Their final likelihood at survival may come down as to whether Baylor has a mattress. “A couple of days in the past I had 5 sufferers on my waitlist,” Dr. Gary Schwartz, a lung transplant surgeon who leads the ECMO program at Baylor, mentioned in an interview. “Two handed away whereas ready. It’s completely horrible.”

Schwartz mentioned his heart, one of many busiest within the nation, averaged about 120 ECMO sufferers a yr earlier than COVID-19. In 2020, that quantity grew to 158, and the quantity would have been larger if he had had further capability. “Fairly actually, there was a further 50 to 100 who had been acceptable however there have been no assets for them,” he mentioned.

National guidelines created by the Extracorporeal Life Help Group, a consortium of hundreds of ECMO centers, basically name for rationing because the demand for ECMO spikes in areas saturated with COVID-19 instances. As surge ranges escalate, “we suggest that choice standards change into extra stringent to make use of this useful resource for these more than likely to learn,” in line with the rules.

Some facilities have moved to implement an age cutoff for ECMO, or decrease the age in present pointers. At Baylor, the utmost age of these thought of acceptable for ECMO was dropped to 60 from 75 earlier than COVID-19, Schwartz mentioned. He mentioned one other heart within the area lowered its age vary to 50 or youthful as a result of it was overwhelmed with requests. “Most of the sufferers at first had been aged, and we had been afraid that if we had a lot of these those who the youthful folks, 30 to 40, would not have that out there,” he mentioned. Schwartz mentioned he has colleagues in Europe who suppose an age restriction is unethical. “In an ideal world, we might be utilizing [ECMO] for the folks more than likely to outlive,” he mentioned.

Schwartz and the administrators of different ECMO facilities in Dallas created an advert hoc group chat on WhatsApp to attempt to maintain observe of the place beds had been out there as hospitals stuffed to capability. “The actual query is can we be taught from this and alter sooner or later to some sort of centralized course of?” Schwartz mentioned.

Hammond mentioned the ECMO administrators in Los Angeles have the same association the place they textual content one another to search out empty beds. The surge in Los Angeles is waning, and instances all through the nation are additionally taking place. However new variants of COVID-19 are rising, posing a risk of contemporary surges. Hammond hopes the expertise with COVID-19 will immediate the creation of a proper, everlasting community to coordinate the care and motion of critically in poor health sufferers in Southern California.

Miguel’s niece, Jhaimy, will change into a health care provider in 5 months and has been interviewing to do her household medication residency coaching in Los Angeles. She’s all the time been conscious of healthcare disparities, and went to medical faculty to search out methods to enhance the system.

“It simply pains me to see how typical a case my uncle was,” she mentioned. “He was Hispanic, mid-50s, an important employee, not trusting of the healthcare system. He match all of the checks.”

On Dec. 30, Jhaimy was considered one of dozens of members of the family who gathered to bury Miguel in a sprawling cemetery close to his house.

A household good friend organized a fundraiser to assist defray the price of the funeral. Miguel was his household’s main supply of earnings, and since his demise, payments have mounted.

A blue and white floral association spelling out “PAPA” was positioned on a stand close to his grave. Beneath it was {a photograph} of a youthful Miguel, carrying a white button-down shirt and a leather-based jacket.

The specter of COVID-19 hung over the graveside service. Everybody wore a masks. Miguel’s mom slumped over his casket, gripping it with fingers lined in clear medical gloves. She wore a face protect and a fabric masks.

Miguel’s sister, left, and mom, at his casket. Credit score: James Carbone for ProPublica

The burial didn’t carry Miguel’s members of the family a lot closure. Jhaimy mentioned she has questioned what would have occurred if her uncle had not been so afraid to go to the hospital. Would he have survived if he had been handled sooner?

Miguel Jr. and Jeannette are troubled that Miguel’s medical doctors did not current ECMO as an choice, after which resisted the concept when the household prompt it.

The household nonetheless thinks about what would have occurred if an ECMO mattress opened up in time.

“I consider with ECMO he would nonetheless be right here at present,” Miguel Jr. mentioned. “He by no means obtained the prospect to combat.”

ProPublica is a nonprofit newsroom that investigates abuses of energy. Signal as much as obtain our biggest stories as quickly as they’re revealed.

David Armstrong is a senior reporter at ProPublica specializing in healthcare investigations. david.armstrong@propublica.org  

Marshall Allen is a reporter at ProPublica investigating the fee and high quality of our healthcare.

ProPublica is an unbiased, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism within the public curiosity.



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