American Rehab Chapter 5: Reagan with the Snap

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Al Letson: Hey, Reveal listeners, in case you’ve been listening to American Rehab, you don’t want me to inform you in regards to the significance of nice investigative journalism. It actually helps us when our listeners charge and overview us on Apple Podcasts. It’s really easy to do and it helps others discover our present. So, we’ve acquired a bonus. For the subsequent 200 individuals who overview us, Reveal tote baggage. Like our T-shirts, they’re easy and chic, darkish blue with the phrase, “Information” written throughout the entrance in daring kind. So, right here’s what you bought to do. Textual content the phrase, “Evaluation” to 474747, and we’ll offer you directions on the way to get one whereas provides final. Once more, textual content the phrase “Evaluation” to 474747. You’ll be able to textual content, “Cease” at any time, and customary charges apply. And once you depart the overview, if you wish to inform them that Al Letson is your all time favourite host, I’m not going to be mad at that. Thanks a lot on your overview on Apple Podcasts. It makes an enormous distinction. Laura Stareches…: Hey, that is reporter Laura Starecheski. Reveal is listener supported. To develop into a contributing member, textual content the phrase, “Reveal” to 474747. Whereas they final, we’re providing a Reveal face masks with the phrase, “Information” embroidered on it. Once more, to get this particular thanks present, simply textual content, “Reveal” to 474747. Normal information charges apply. Al Letson: From the Heart for Investigative Reporting and PRX, that is Reveal. I’m Al Letson. That is Chapter 5 of American Rehab, Reagan with the Snap. Once we left off in the summertime of 1978, Cenikor founder Luke Austin had been ousted after he siphoned off many of the group’s cash to assist a lifetime of luxurious for himself. Cenikor nonetheless had two amenities, its unique headquarters in Colorado, and its newer operation in Houston, Texas. However the group was broke. And the 75 or so individuals dwelling in Houston had been struggling. Some had been there for years, some had been new, simply beginning to discover a method out of dependancy. And now, all of them had been resorting to a weight loss plan of cornmeal mush and inexperienced jello simply to outlive. However as Laura Starecheski, of our American Rehab crew, tells us, issues are about to get much more company at Cenikor, with slightly assist from pals in excessive locations. Laura Stareches…: With Luke Austin out, Ken Barun was serving to run the Houston facility. He’d been at Cenikor for six years, and now, he was attempting to provide you with a approach to save the group. Ken Barun: We didn’t have a marketing strategy. I’m telling you, I didn’t know what I used to be doing. Laura Stareches…: After Luke Austin was caught spending Cenikor’s cash on himself, after the brawl the place he tried retaking management of the group with tear gasoline and baseball bats, Cenikor gained a status, not a great one. Donors had been balking at giving cash, outstanding board members left, and Ken took it upon himself to present this system some legitimacy, one thing that had been robust in the very best of occasions. Ken Barun: We had critics on a regular basis, and I am going, “Look, it’s working for me. It’s working for different individuals. You’ll be able to criticize all you need, however not one of the different applications to do it a lot better both.” Laura Stareches…: These different applications had been few and much between. In Texas, within the late ’70s, even with all of the Synanon impressed rehabs, there nonetheless simply weren’t that many choices for individuals searching for drug remedy. And to make Ken’s job even harder, for all of the years he’d been at Cenikor, he’d by no means actually had management of the cash. Ken Barun: I by no means carried cash in Cenikor, ever. I don’t suppose I had $10 in my pocket at anybody time in eight or 9 years. Nothing, nothing. Laura Stareches…: However what Ken did have was a fundraising pitch. From the start, Cenikor members had been anticipated to pound the pavement and scrounge up donations. So, he caught to it, explaining this system to anybody who might assist. Ken Barun: We acquired a therapeutic group, a program that folks lived, we supported ourselves, we acquired donated meals, donated clothes, donated vehicles. None of us acquired a wage, and that everyone has a job. Laura Stareches…: These jobs had been pretty small time within the Luke Austin years, landscaping gigs, the trucking enterprise with one truck, the only Cenikor gasoline station. Now, it was time to suppose larger. Cenikor began getting extra contracts with outdoors companies, sending teams of staff out to do building, to work at a door manufacturing facility. They despatched 20 individuals at a time to an organization that manufactured big roof trusses for constructing houses. Ken additionally organized a contract with the Houston Astrodome. Crews of Cenikor members labored as landscapers. They’d swarm the sphere and work across the clock when it wanted to be turned over from baseball to soccer. And in 1980, Ken arrange yet one more huge contract. Laura Stareches…: (singing). Houston Oilers, Quantity One. Sure we’re the Houston Oilers, Houston Oilers, Houston Oilers, Quantity One. You simply can’t assist singing together with that Oiler music. Anyway, the Houston Oiler’s quarterback was Dan Pastorini. He’d been the crew’s first decide within the 1971 draft, a complete star. Speaker 4: Dan Pastorini bulls-eyed 26 occasions for 354 yards on the afternoon, and virtually finessed Houston again to victory. Laura Stareches…: Image a robust jaw and a unclean blonde surfer shag, and that’s Pastorini. He dated Farrah Faucet. He posed for Playgirl. Pastorini had what one newspaper referred to as a freakishly sturdy arm, however, he acquired damage so much. Speaker 5: Pastorini is down. We watched Pastorini get carried out of the stadium earlier within the yr on a stretcher. Dan is up now, however he actually acquired leveled. Laura Stareches…: After one in every of these accidents, in 1978, three damaged ribs, Pastorini was in Houston Methodist Hospital mendacity there in mattress, when two males walked in who he’d by no means seen earlier than. Pastorini recounted this in an interview later with ABC information in Houston, one in every of these mysterious males was sporting a trench coat. Dan Pastorini: He got here by the room, carrying a brown paper sack, and a good friend of his with a baseball bat. I assumed they had been going to pummel me to demise and take me out of there. Laura Stareches…: However the man within the trench coat was an inventor named Byron Donzis. Out of the paper sack got here Byron’s newest invention. Dan Pastorini: He simply sort of nonchalantly takes this factor out and holds it over his ribs, and his buddy whacks him about thrice. And I stated, “I’d prefer to have a type of.” Laura Stareches…: Byron referred to as his invention a flak jacket. It was designed only for soccer gamers. Dan Pastorini: Two days later, he reveals up at observe, and he’s acquired the prototype, which was constructed from a Navy Seal life vest. And that labored. I imply, it was scorching, nevertheless it was a really protecting. Laura Stareches…: In Pastorini’s subsequent sport, he confronted off towards 300 pound defensive lineman. Beneath his uniform, the flak jacket hugged his cracked ribs tight. NFL movies referred to as that sport, “One of many 10 gutsiest performances in soccer.” The personalized pads gamers put on immediately are nonetheless primarily based on that unique flak jacket. Speaker 7: Protects their ribs, their sternum, they usually nonetheless have full movement. Now, a quarterback would simply as quickly go with out his jock, as he would his flak jacket. Laura Stareches…: Pastorini and Byron Donzis earned a footnote in NFL historical past, however there’s one huge element neglected of that footnote. Cenikor. When Byron Donzis was beginning out, he had a prototype and a patent, however that’s all. Byron was extra of an inventor than a businessman. That’s the place Cenikor is available in. Ken Barun made a pitch that Cenikor had what he didn’t, staff. Ken Barun: Why don’t we begin making that stuff right here? We are able to make it for you. It was all customized made, and he was making it in his basement. Laura Stareches…: When Ken arrange the contract with Byron, he cleared the complete tenth ground of Cenikor’s Houston resort and created a makeshift flak jacket manufacturing facility. Ken Barun: Look, I didn’t go for any codes. I didn’t go to town. I didn’t ask for permission. We simply arrange this type of manufacturing system, we’ve acquired ovens, we’re melting plastic, we’re doing all types of loopy stuff. Speaker 8: The oldsters you see assembling the Donzis gear are collaborating in a Houston drug rehabilitation program referred to as the Cenikor Basis, a bunch of individuals Byron is proud to be related to. Laura Stareches…: We discovered this previous information footage, which appears and sounds prefer it was recorded on a jumpy VCR tape. It’s from a TV present referred to as PM journal, broadcast in Beaumont, Texas in 1981. You’ll be able to see the Cenikor staff standing at work benches, peering via huge Nineteen Eighties glasses, chopping plastic into shapes, utilizing cardboard templates labeled “massive rib” and “sternum plate.” Byron defined this system. Byron Donzis: Some 40 of them labored with us in manufacturing by hand, stitching, molding, forming, chopping all the things by hand, and watching over it to make it possible for the standard is there. Laura Stareches…: Cenikor began by supplying the Houston Oilers. From there, they ended up making flak jackets and different pads for all 28 groups within the NFL, and 800 school groups. Ken Barun: Making soccer tools was excellent. We manufactured these items. We obtained it, we shipped it out of the there, so individuals discovered delivery, receiving. Then guys would do gross sales, nevertheless it was a hoot of a job to do gross sales. I did a number of gross sales. I went to Hawaii twice to promote to the College of Hawaii. Laura Stareches…: Generally these fortunate Cenikor gross sales individuals even acquired sideline passes to video games. These brothers and sisters of Cenikor had gone from dwelling in a rundown resort, sporting donated denims and consuming cornmeal mush, to sporting donated fits and jet setting across the nation. By 1983, Cenikor was making thousands and thousands of {dollars} a yr. It was pulling in huge donations from firms like Shell and Boeing. Ken had taken over as President, and the management began getting salaries for the primary time. Cenikor was nonetheless not paying any wages to its members, the employees, by the best way. This was the second when another person acquired fascinated with what was occurring at Cenikor, somebody who would ship its star rising even larger. Sooner or later, Ken’s telephone rang and the voice on the opposite finish stated he was calling from the White Home. Ken Barun: So I stated, “No, you’re not calling from the White Home.” He stated, “Yeah. I’ll offer you my quantity. You’ll be able to name me again.” So (202) 456-1414, on the White Home, “Can I converse to Mike Castine?” Laura Stareches…: Mike Castine labored for President Ronald Reagan. He was the Deputy Director of one thing referred to as the Workplace of Personal Sector Initiatives. Ken Barun: Maintain on, put him proper via. Oh geez, what are you calling about? He explains to me, “We’re searching for a spot for the President to go to. May we come by and go to?” And I stated, “Certain, you may come by and go to. Loopy, however come by.” Laura Stareches…: Reagan was searching for locations to talk, to point out America what his Federal drug coverage was all about, which is how, in 1983, Reagan came visiting Cenikor’s previous resort in downtown Houston. Within the pictures from that day, you may see a banner that reads “Cenikor Enterprises” and a younger girl sporting a Cenikor T-shirt in entrance of a stitching machine, and a stack of flak jackets. Ken Barun acquired to introduce the President. Ken Barun: I respect him being right here as a result of we’ve labored so very, very arduous for 15 years to get the popularity that we really feel Cenikor deserves, and this man has acknowledged that. Women and gents, members of the press and distinguished friends, the President of the US. President Ronal…: Thanks all very a lot for a really heartwarming welcome. I’m very proud and blissful to be right here. I’ve seen a number of the merchandise and the issues that you just’re doing right here, and I’d simply purchase a few of that soccer tools that I noticed, and use it with the Congress. As long as you don’t promote them any. Laura Stareches…: Ken even helped the President check the flak jacket himself, reenacting that product demo from Dan Pastorini’s hospital room. Ken Barun: We had put a rib protector on one of many guys, and I used to be holding the baseball bat. The Secret Service was nervous about that, however then I handed it to the President, and I confirmed the President the way to hit the man within the ribs with a baseball bat, after which he took a swipe on the man. Laura Stareches…: However this spectacle wasn’t actually in regards to the soccer tools. It was about pushing Reagan’s financial coverage often known as Reaganomics. He was slashing taxes and social providers, shrinking the federal government. Cenikor was the right instance to point out that the Federal authorities didn’t should be concerned in treating drug dependancy in any respect. President Ronal…: This middle is self-sufficient, similar to all of you’ll quickly be. Cenikor receives no Federal cash, and so no Federal strings come hooked up. Laura Stareches…: Nicely, it wasn’t fairly self-sufficient. Cenikor really had obtained authorities cash. The Colorado facility had gotten virtually $300,000 from the Federal authorities. One early resident informed me they’d eaten authorities cheese in Houston for years. Nevermind all that, Cenikor’s method spoke to Reagan. President Ronal…: I used to be glancing via your Cenikor booklet, and I preferred the very first sentence I learn, “In all of the years that Cenikor has been in enterprise, rehabilitating lives, now we have discovered that nothing works in addition to work itself.” Work is remedy. You’re feeling higher about your self when you might have one thing productive to do. Laura Stareches…: It additionally didn’t appear to matter that Cenikor’s years lengthy work remedy program didn’t work for most individuals. Past a core group of devotees like Ken, most individuals nonetheless left Cenikor only a few months after they arrived. These individuals who left, who didn’t make it via this system, I couldn’t discover anybody like that also round to speak, however the believers, believed. All of the individuals I might discover who had been at Cenikor within the early days, they beloved it. Regardless of Luke Austin’s abuse, regardless of the opposite failings, they stayed. Some even informed me that Cenikor saved their lives. Ken Barun nonetheless swears by what he discovered there, and he is aware of the stakes are life and demise. About 10 years in the past, his daughter died of an opioid overdose. Realizing these are the stakes, life and demise, when individuals come to Ken for assist, he nonetheless tells them about Cenikor. He even despatched his personal son there. Ken Barun: We’ve acquired anyone there who’s doing very properly, we’ve had people who haven’t carried out very properly. Laura Stareches…: I had informed Ken the explanation we’re reporting on Cenikor now’s as a result of it’s participant’s work, nevertheless it doesn’t pay them. Ken says he is aware of this system doesn’t assist everybody, however that failing is just not due to the unpaid work. Ken Barun: Nothing has to do with the roles that I’ve heard. The one criticism comes from that’s journalists, and I’m not knocking you in any respect, Laura. Or people who have left this system. “Oh, they made me work so arduous.” Nicely, what else would you be doing? What else would you be doing along with your life, in case you’re not working on a regular basis studying a commerce or serving to different individuals reside? I imply, what would you somewhat be doing? Sitting in a remedy session all day lengthy and speaking to your navel or what? I don’t get what individuals suppose life is about. Like I stated, I didn’t suppose I’d ever be capable of reside life once more. And but, the instance, the issues that I did, ready me to reside life. I’m a fantastic, I suppose individuals name it a fantastic success, I’ve had a fantastic life after Cenikor. Laura Stareches…: In his nice life after Cenikor, Ken went to work on the White Home. After Reagan was reelected, he was recruited to work for Nancy Reagan’s anti-drug marketing campaign. Ken acquired his personal workplace within the East wing. He stopped sporting donated fits. He helped unfold the gospel of “Simply Say No.” He’d made it. And Cenikor was about to get an excellent larger enhance from the Reagan Administration. Al Letson: To maintain this system rising and the cash flowing, Cenikor wanted individuals, staff, and the struggle on medication would provide them. Speaker 11: If you happen to don’t benefit from this, you’re by no means going to see sunshine once more for the remainder of your life. Al Letson: The Jail to Rehab Pipeline. That’s developing, after the break. Al Letson: From the Heart for Investigative Reporting and PRX, that is Reveal. I’m Al Letson. Once we left off, Cenikor was doing nice. They had been making soccer tools for the NFL, and the President of the US, Ronald Reagan, had praised their mannequin, work as a remedy for drug dependancy. However issues had been about to get even higher for Cenikor due to that very same President. Reveal’s Shoshana Walter picks up the story from right here. Shoshana Walter: To know Reagan’s influence on Cenikor, first now we have to return to the drug disaster of the Nineteen Eighties. Speaker 13: See this cute little vile right here? It’s crack rock cocaine, probably the most addictive type. Shoshana Walter: Crack cocaine. There have been tons of PSAs again then. They starred huge deal celebrities, like Clint Eastwood, warning about this rising menace. Clint Eastwood: Do you suppose it’s the glamor drug of the eighties? Nicely, that’s the purpose of this pleasant little reminder. It could kill you. And in case you’ve acquired to die for one thing, this certain as hell ain’t it. Shoshana Walter: Concern about medication was spreading throughout the US. Imploring children to remain off medication had develop into First Girl Nancy Reagan’s signature situation. Nancy Reagan: What do you have to do when somebody gives you medication? Group Youngsters: Simply Say No. Nancy Reagan: What’s going to do you do when somebody gives you medication? Group Youngsters: Simply Say No. Nancy Reagan: I can’t hear you. Louder. Group Youngsters: Simply Say No. Nancy Reagan: That’s great. Shoshana Walter: Whereas Nancy Reagan was telling the nation to “Simply Say No,” her husband had a wholly totally different method. President Ronal…: Smoke-able cocaine, in any other case often known as crack, it’s an explosively harmful and infrequently deadly substance, which is crushing its customers. It’s an uncontrolled hearth. Shoshana Walter: Reagan needed to utterly eradicate crack. Obliterate it. This was a struggle. So prevention campaigns, like Simply Say No, weren’t Reagan’s high funding precedence. Neither was remedy. He poured cash into legislation enforcement. By 1986, roughly 80% of the Federal drug funds was devoted to policing and prosecuting individuals. President Ronal…: The American individuals need their authorities to get robust and to go on the offensive. That’s precisely what we intend, with extra ferocity than ever earlier than. Shoshana Walter: Reagan teamed up with Democrats, who had management of the Home, to go the bipartisan Anti-drug Abuse Act. Distinguished Black politicians backed the legislation. They had been keen to point out their constituents that they’d a response to how arduous crack was hitting their neighborhoods. Nearly nobody realized on the time that one tiny clause on this complicated new legislation would find yourself paving the best way for 1000’s of Black and Brown individuals to finish up in jail. Shoshana Walter: The brand new legislation created a two tier system of justice. It stated that 5 grams of crack cocaine would get you a similar sentence as 500 grams of powder cocaine, that means that anyone with just a bit greater than a sugar packets price of crack would get despatched away for a similar period of time as anyone with a couple of pound of powder cocaine. Within the years after the legislation was signed, the individuals busted for crack had been overwhelmingly Black, they usually acquired a lot harsher sentences than the principally White individuals busted for powder cocaine. Shoshana Walter: Within the late eighties, President George H.W. Bush piled on with one other harsh anti-drug legislation, pouring thousands and thousands extra into legislation enforcement. In 1994, President Invoice Clinton signed his personal legislation, including more cash for policing, and extra jail time, once more with bipartisan assist. Because the crack epidemic, there’ve been others, there was methamphetamine. Speaker 17: I did meth for the primary time, now all I do is meth. Shoshana Walter: Now, opioids. Speaker 18: I acquired some Oxy after I damage my neck. First, I took them to really feel higher. Then, I simply saved taking them. Shoshana Walter: With every new drug epidemic, increasingly drug customers have gotten locked up. Most of them are Black and Latino. In 1980, there have been round 40,000 individuals behind bars for medication. By 2017, there have been greater than 450,000. Choose Larry Gist watched all of it unfold from the bench in Beaumont, Texas, outdoors Houston. Once I went to see him in his chambers in late 2018, he’d been sentencing individuals for drug crimes for nearly 45 years. Shoshana Walter: I’m noticing all of the awards in your partitions. Choose Larry Gis…: Yeah. I acquired a number of awards. I’ve plenty of pals in excessive locations. Shoshana Walter: One of many awards was from Cenikor, a shiny plaque formed like a diamond. I requested him about it. Choose Larry Gis…: I acquired it years in the past. I’ve been near them for 20 years, I suppose they simply determined to present me a plaque. I imply, I do not know. Shoshana Walter: I spent a day in Choose Gists’ courtroom. Attorneys watched movies on their telephones, ready their flip. One ate a bag of Flaming Sizzling Cheetos, regardless that consuming and cell telephones had been strictly forbidden. I watched defendant after defendant come earlier than Choose Gist, some sporting shackles. Choose Larry Gis…: Mr. Jenkins, the indictment in your case, 30222, alleges that you just possessed cocaine. Choose Larry Gis…: Ms. O’Neil, the indictment in your case alleges that you just possessed methamphetamine. Choose Larry Gis…: Mr. Cordoza, the indictment in your case alleges that you just possessed cocaine, in a State jail felony quantity on November third. Shoshana Walter: Choose Gist convicted virtually all people within the courtroom that day. Some might have confronted 10 years to life for felony possession. Again in his chambers, Gist informed us that he opts for probation more often than not, and he tries to ship individuals to remedy in hopes that they’ll study to take duty for themselves. Choose Larry Gis…: The overwhelming majority of oldsters that I take care of are mainly bottom-feeders, they’ve been losers for the reason that day they had been born. That they had a crack head momma and a dope head daddy, or no momma or no daddy. They kicked them out of church, they kicked them out of Little League. They’ve by no means achieved something, and don’t know the way to obtain it. They’re mainly searching for the right welfare state, the place the do-gooders maintain them. Shoshana Walter: And over time, for what he referred to as the toughest core individuals, who’ve been arrested a number of occasions and are going through years in jail, Choose Gist would select Cenikor. Choose Larry Gis…: It’s the very best factor that I’ve ever seen, for the proper individuals. Final probability individuals, finish of the highway. If you happen to don’t benefit from this, you by no means going to see sunshine once more for the remainder of your life. Shoshana Walter: They may by no means see sunshine once more, as a result of when a choose sends somebody to Cenikor, they usually don’t end this system, they are often despatched to jail for years, or for many years. Shoshana Walter: From the very starting, Cenikor founder Luke Austin knew how he might develop his program. He wooed judges and legislation enforcement officers, and acquired them to begin sending individuals to Cenikor. When the struggle on medication escalated, jails and prisons began overflowing with drug customers. Increasingly more courts had been searching for someplace else to ship all these individuals. Cenikor match the invoice. It was long run and it didn’t value something. Cenikor, and applications prefer it, grew to become a part of a jail to rehab pipeline. Shoshana Walter: Cenikor is meant to be a pathway out of dependancy, however the principle remedy methodology appears to be sending individuals to work. We requested Choose Gist about that. Choose Larry Gis…: Drug remedy could possibly be a thousand issues. Generally robust love works higher. There’s nobody approach to do it, no proper method. It’s no matter’s proper for this individual, and who is aware of what that’s. You’ve acquired to attempt, let’s see what’s behind door quantity three, perhaps that’ll work. Shoshana Walter: We needed to return to Choose Gist, to share all of the findings of our investigation and get his response, however he handed away a pair months after our interview. We did ask him how many individuals he’d despatched to Cenikor over time. He stated about 200. Shoshana Walter: Choose Gist was simply one in every of many judges throughout Texas and Louisiana who’ve develop into important to Cenikor. Judges have served on Cenikor’s board. A few of them have obtained their very own Cenikor awards. Some courts have despatched only a few individuals to Cenikor, others have despatched lots of. All of it provides up, about half of Cenikor’s residents immediately are court docket ordered. Simply speaking to individuals who’ve attended Cenikor, it looks as if a disproportionate variety of them are White. We needed to know, is there a racial disparity right here? What number of Black and Latino individuals arrested on drug expenses are even getting the choice of Cenikor, as an alternative of jail? However Louisiana and Texas don’t monitor that information. Shoshana Walter: Tim Rowe, who we met earlier within the sequence, went to Cenikor voluntarily, with assist from his sister, Penny. When he acquired to the Baton Rouge facility, he was shocked by how many individuals had been court docket ordered into this system. Tim Rowe: The general public that are available there, they arrive in there in orange jumpsuits with shackles round their ankles. They need to be there. They’re simply turning these individuals into slaves, just about. Shoshana Walter: We’ve talked to lots of of people that’ve been via Cenikor’s applications. Lots of them have been court docket ordered. Speaker 21: Backside line is, I don’t wish to be a convicted felon. Speaker 22: A good friend of mine referred to as the DA, and requested him to assist me out, and get me rehabilitation as an alternative of a jail sentence. Speaker 23: Look, I had 45 years over my head. I didn’t care in the event that they informed me to leap via a flaming hula hoop and eat a bucket of shit. I used to be going to eat some shit, and soar via some hearth. Shoshana Walter: From its begin as a fringe group in Colorado, Cenikor has develop into an establishment with a number of applications in Louisiana and Texas. The individuals at Cenikor do not make soccer tools anymore. So what are they doing? We requested for a tour, however Cenikor declined. The one approach to discover out was to go to Cenikor and determine it out for ourselves. Al Letson: And that’s precisely what Sho does. She groups up with our colleague, Laura Starecheski, to search out out the place Cenikor is placing individuals to work. Shoshana Walter: There’s individuals taking breaks. Al Letson: They tracked down coal staff in Baton Rouge who’re doing all types of jobs. Laura Stareches…: How usually do of us from Cenikor work right here? Speaker 24: I’m probably not certain as a result of all people wears the identical uniform, so you actually can’t inform one from one other. Al Letson: Chasing a Shadow Workforce. That’s subsequent time on American Rehab. Al Letson: The American Rehab reporting crew is Shoshana Walter, Laura Starecheski, and Ike Sriskandarajah. Brett Myers is our editor. Laura is our lead producer and produced this chapter with Katherine Maskowski. Amy Julia Harris helped us report this story from the start and launched this mission. We had extra editorial assist from Narda Saquino, Andy Donahue and Esther Kaplan, and manufacturing assist from WHYY in Philadelphia. Particular because of Sandusha Rangarajan, Delcia Mercedes and Spencer Norris. Reality checking by Rosemary Ho. Victoria Beranetski is our basic counsel, our manufacturing supervisor is Mewendy Inahosa. Our manufacturing crew consists of LaJeva Menhey, Amy Mustafa and Claire Mullen. Our theme music is “Lifeline” by the dynamic duo, Jay Breezy, Mr. Jim Briggs and Fernando, my man, Yoarruda. They composed and carried out all the music on American Rehab. Al Letson: Our CEO is Christa Scharfenberg. Matt Thompson is our editor in chief and our govt producer is Kevin Sullivan. Help for Reveal is offered by the Reva and David Logan Basis, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Basis, the Jonathan Logan Household Basis, the Ford Basis, the Heising Simons Basis, the Democracy Fund and the Ethics and Excellence in Journalism Basis. Al Letson: Reveal is a co-production of the Heart for Investigative Reporting and PRX. I’m Al Letson. And bear in mind, there’s at all times extra to the story.

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